The millions of measurements will then be analysed and incorporated into gaming technology to produce 2D and 3D images.
The research will take three years.
Equipment will be spread over an area spanning 4km this year and a total of 14km over the next three years.
Project leader Professor Vince Gaffney, from the University on Birmingham, said: “We aim to unlock the mysteries of Stonehenge and show people exactly what the local area looked like during the time the monument was created.
“The results of this work will be a digital chart of the ‘invisible’ Stonehenge landscape, a seamless map linking one of the world’s most famous monuments with the buried archaeology that surrounds it.”