The Heart of Neolithic Orkney is made up of the tomb of Maeshowe, the Stones of Stenness, the Barnhouse Stone, the Watch Stone, the Ring of Brodgar and Skara Brae.
The recording process will involve a laser being fired millions of times a second at each of the monuments.
The end result will be a precise record of the sites, accurate down to just millimetres.
The data will be used to assess the physical condition of the structures and provide a foundation for future conservation, site management and aid archaeological understanding.
Project leader Dr Lyn Wilson said: “Though we have already scanned New Lanark, the scale and nature of the monuments will be an entirely different challenge.