This book, which sold for a whopping 11,000 pounds to a modern-day plastic surgeon, was written by Gaspare Tagliacozzi.
He was the professor or surgery and anatomy at the University of Bologna and devised ways of repairing noses, ears and lips.
In one diagram from the book, the patient is seen in bed with his forearm attached to his head and a flap of skin – or pedicle – from his bicep region stuck onto his nose.
He stayed like that for about three weeks until the skin from his arm had attached itself properly.
After a further two weeks the bit of skin was shaped so it resembled a nose and the process was complete.
The book De Curtorum Chirurgia Per Insitionem – meaning The Surgery of Defects by Implantations – was published in 1597, two years before the author’s death.