For the past two months archaeologists have been digging in North Parramatta, the site of former institutional care facilities.
In the early 19th century female convicts were housed in the female factory.
The site was then expanded to include a mental asylum and an orphanage.
Senior archaeologist Rhian Jones said it was one of the first times the area had been explored in this way.
Story: Jackson Vernon, ABC News | Photos: Jackson Vernon, ABC News